Clin Oncol | Volume 8, Issue 1 | Research Article | Open Access

Superoxide Dismutase and Its Cofactors, for Serum and Salivary Levels in Breast Cancer Patients

Yousif AM1 and Ismail PA2*

1Department of Basic Science, Dentistry College, Hawler Medical University, Iraq
2Department of Chemistry, Education College, University of Salahaddin, Iraq

*Correspondance to: Parween A Ismail 

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Background: Breast sarcoma is the most regularly diagnosed malignancy among females. Another source of specimen for clinical diagnosis is saliva which has been utilized and it is a hopeful approach as collecting saliva is relatively easy and non-invasive. Over the past two decades, developing saliva as a bio-pointer, precisely for early malignancy identification has appealed much research attention.
Aim: To examine and compare blood and saliva samples in order to measure antioxidant components such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and trace elements in order to detect a simple, early, and noninvasive diagnostic test as biomarkers and prognostic tools in breast cancer patients.
Methods: A total of 96 female volunteers were participated in this study, 50 patients with breast malignance compared with 46 healthy participants in order to evaluate and compare salivary and blood level enzyme such as SOD with some trace elements such as: Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), and Zinc (Zn).
Results: The mean serum and salivary samples data presented that the levels of SOD (P<0.001), Cu (P<0.01), Mn (P<0.001), and Zn (P<0.05, P<0.01) were significantly reduced in breast melanoma illnesses than those of non-breast melanoma illnesses. Conclusion: In this study, salivary levels of SOD and some trace elements were compared to blood levels to see if they could be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool instead of serum testing component, which might be used as biomarkers and tumor progression evaluations in diagnosing breast sarcoma.


Breast cancer; Copper; Manganese; Superoxide dismutase; Zinc


Yousif AM, Ismail PA. Superoxide Dismutase and Its Cofactors, for Serum and Salivary Levels in Breast Cancer Patients. Clin Oncol. 2023;8:1988..

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