Clin Oncol | Volume 2, Issue 1 | Research Article | Open Access

Association of Oral Contraceptives and Hormone Replacement Therapy with Pancreatic Cancer Risk in Women: A Meta-Analysis

Jin-Xiao Liang1, Wei Gao2, Xin-ming Zhou1, Yong Liang3* and Jun Ling4*

1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Republic of China
2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Republic of China
3Department of Clinical Medicine, Taizhou University Medical School, Republic of China
4Department of Basic Sciences, Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, USA

*Correspondance to: Yong Liang 

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Although the incidence rate of pancreatic cancer is higher in men than in women, Oral Contraceptives (OC) and Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) commonly used in women may constitute a risk or protective factor for pancreatic cancer. Some studies have examined these relationships, but no coherent conclusions have been reached. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis in this study by extensive search of literature using PubMed and EMBASE databases. It was found that OC use was associated with the significant decrease in pancreatic cancer risk (pooled OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.91). Subgroup analysis identified that OC decreased the risk in the pancreatic cancer population-based studies (pooled OR 0.76, 95 % CI 0.67-0.86) but was controversial in the hospital-based studies (pooled OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.94-1.57). HRT did not show the significant effect on pancreatic cancer risk (pooled OR 1.00, 95 % CI 0.79-1.26). However, subgroup analysis identified the decreased risk in North America population (pooled OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65-1.01) but the increased risk in Europe population (pooled OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.16-1.97). In conclusion, OC use was demonstrated to have a protective effect against pancreatic cancer in women, where as HRT showed no effect or diverse effects in different populations. Our results increase the awareness of using HRT in women when considering pancreatic cancer risk. The subgroup analysis also suggests that more clinical studies are needed to clarify the specific relationship between OC or HRT and pancreatic cancer risk in different populations.


Pancreatic cancer; Oral contraceptives; Hormone replacement therapy; Risk factor, Meta-analysis


Liang J-X, Gao W, Zhou X-M, Liang Y, Ling J. Association of Oral Contraceptives and Hormone Replacement Therapy with Pancreatic Cancer Risk in Women: A Meta- Analysis. Clin Oncol. 2017; 2: 1309.

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